Contracts which need not be performed
Effect of novation, rescission and alteration of contract.
62. If the parties to a contract agree to substitute a new contract for it, or to rescind or alter it, the original contract need not be performed.
(a) A owes money to B under a contract. It is agreed between A, B and C that B shall thenceforth accept C as his debtor, instead of A. The old debt of A to B is at an end, a new debt from C to B has been contracted.
(b) A owes B 10,000 rupees. A enters into an agreement with B, and gives B a mortgage of his (A’s) estate for 5,000 rupees in place of the debt of 10,000 rupees. This is a new contract and extinguishes the old.
(c) A owes B 1,000 rupees under a contract, B owes C 1,000 rupees. B orders A to credit C with 1,000 rupees in his books, but C does not assent to the arrangement. B still owes C 1,000 rupees, and no new contract has been entered into.
Promisee may dispense with or remit performance of promise.
63. Every promisee may dispense with or remit, wholly or in part, the performance of the promise made to him, or may extend the time for such performance, or may accept instead of it any satisfaction which he thinks tit
(a) A promises to paint a picture for B. B afterwards forbids him to do so A is no longer bound to perform the promise.
(b) A owes B 5,000 rupees. A pays to B, and B accepts in satisfaction of the whole debt, 2,000 rupees paid at the time and place at which the 5,000 rupees were payable. The whole debt is discharged.
(c) A owes B 5,000 rupees. C pays to B 1,000 rupees, and B accepts them, in satisfaction of his claim on A. This payment is a discharge of the whole claim.
(d) A owes B, under a contract, a sum of money, the amount of which has not been ascertained. A without ascertaining the amount gives to B, and B, in satisfaction thereof, accepts the sum of 2,000 rupees. This is a discharge of the whole debt, whatever may be its amount.
(e) A owes B 2,000 rupees, and is also indebted to other creditors. A makes an arrangement with his creditors, including B, to pay them, a composition of eight annas in the rupee upon their respective demands. Payment to B of 1,000 rupees is a discharge of B’s demand.
Consequences of rescission of voidable contract.
64. Where a person at whose option a contract is voidable rescinds it, the other party thereto need not perform any promise therein contained in which he is promisor. The party rescinding a voidable contract shall, if he has received any benefit thereunder from another party to such contract, restore such benefit, so far as may be, to the person from whom it was received.